Fatty acids without double bonds are known as saturated. They differ in length as well. Chemical properties of fatty acids pdf acid chains differ by length, often categorized as short to very long.
Pairs of carbon atoms connected by double bonds can be saturated by adding hydrogen atoms to them, converting the double bonds to single bonds. Therefore, the double bonds are called unsaturated. The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer, or triglycerides in lipid droplets, cis bonds limit the ability of fatty acids to be closely packed, and therefore can affect the melting temperature of the membrane or of the fat. As a result, they do not cause the chain to bend much, and their shape is similar to straight saturated fatty acids. Fatty acids that are required by the human body but cannot be made in sufficient quantity from other substrates, and therefore must be obtained from food, are called essential fatty acids.
Humans lack the ability to introduce double bonds in fatty acids beyond carbons 9 and 10, as counted from the carboxylic acid side. These fatty acids are widely distributed in plant oils. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds. Arachidic acid, a saturated fatty acid.
The following table describes the most common systems of naming fatty acids. These names frequently do not follow any pattern, but they are concise and often unambiguous. This notation is generally more verbose than common nomenclature, but has the advantage of being more technically clear and descriptive. This nomenclature has the advantage of being less verbose than systematic nomenclature, but is no more technically clear or descriptive. This notation can be ambiguous, as some different fatty acids can have the same numbers.
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